It was during the long reign of Louis XIV (1661-1715), that the fan reached the highest degree of elegance and richness. The golden and silvered frames were fretted and decorated with precious stones. The page was in very thick painted kid skin with scenes taken from mythology or from the roman history in front, with a succession of flowers and little birds on the back. Great artists ventured in the decoration of these objects; the Italians, as first, reproduced paintings of great masters. This grand luxury was due to the taste of Madame de Montespan, replaced then by the marquise of Maintenon who succeeded in 1684 in marrying the king. (morganaticamente??) From this dating the fan changes: it’s smaller and the frames are more moderate “ even it becomes a martyr of the declamations against luxury of Madame of Maintenon who passed from Calvinism to Catholicism becoming so churchy” (L. de Mauri, manuali Hoepli, pag. 28).